Acrylonitrile butadiene styrene polymer, also known as ABS, is a matte engineering polymer that is widely used in electronics, consumer products, pipes and fittings, Lego toys, etc. ABS polymer is an impact-resistant and amorphous engineering thermoplastic. This polymer is composed of three types of monomers: acrylonitrile, butadiene, and styrene. In this PETROPROVIDERS article, after definition and structure, we talk about the properties of ABS polymer, disadvantages, alloys and application of acrylonitrile butadiene styrene polymer, and finally the conditions of injection and extrusion process of polymer.

What is ABS polymer and what materials is it made of?

This polymer is composed of three types of monomers: acrylonitrile, butadiene, and styrene:

  • Acrylonitrile: A monomer made of propylene and ammonia. This component contributes to the chemical resistance and thermal stability of ABS.
  • Butadiene: An by-product of the ethylene production process. It plays the role of improving the impact strength in ABS.
  • Styrene: plays the role of rigidity and processability of ABS.
ABS raw materials Structure

ABS raw materials Structure

ABS polymer is made by emulsion technique, the hardness of which is shown in the figure below. It is normally opaque and can be easily painted with pigments.

Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene structure

Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene structure

ABS polymer is a durable, chemically resistant polymer, but it is easily attacked by polar solvents! Also, acrylonitrile butadiene styrene polymer has higher HDT temperature and higher impact resistance than HIPS.

Properties of acrylonitrile butadiene styrene polymer

ABS polymer is an ideal material for many applications due to its important properties. This material is used in various industries and is suitable for use in the automotive industry, sports equipment, and home appliances. The most important features and properties of ABS polymer are:

  • High hardness
  • High impact strength even at low temperatures
  • Good insulating properties
  • Good weldability
  • Good abrasion resistance
  • High dimensional stability
  • High-level brightness
  • Very good resistance to dilute acid
  • Medium resistance to aliphatic hydrocarbons
  • Poor resistance to aromatic and halogenated hydrocarbons and alcohols

The acrylonitrile butadiene styrene polymer is easily modified by the addition of additives and by changes in the ratio of its monomers. Thermal stabilizers, lubricants, hydrolysis stabilizers, and UV are added to strengthen and modify it. For this reason, a variety of grades are available from ABS in the form of medium impact resistance and high impact resistance.

Disadvantages of ABS polymer

The most important disadvantages and limitations of acrylonitrile butadiene styrene polymer are:

  • Poor air resistance
  • Ordinary grades are easily flammable.
  • They are easily scratched
  • Resistance to polar solvents, aromatics and ketones, and esters are weak
  • It has low dielectric strength
  • It has a low user temperature

Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene Polymer Alloys

There are several ways to overcome the limitations mentioned above, such as adding special additives or changing the number of monomers. One practical and effective way is to alloy ABS with another polymer.

ABS polymer can be easily alloyed with other polymers such as PA, PBT, PC, etc. Alloying improves a wide range of ABS polymer properties. Take the ABS / PC alloy, for example. Both of these polymers have specific properties as well as limitations. But their alloy improves processability, gives them higher strength and hardness, and also increases their thermal stability.

What are the important applications of ABS polymer in global industries?

ABS Lego

ABS Lego

Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene polymer mentioned in the above sections has important properties such as impact strength and… This makes ABS a polymer widely used in various industries. The most important uses of Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene are:

Automobile manufacturing:

It is an important replacement for some metal parts and will reduce the weight of the product. Such as dashboard components, door handles, seat belt components, etc.

Electronics and computers:

This polymer is used to produce computer keyboards and mouses.

Home Appliances :

Such as components and frames for razors, vacuum cleaners, food processors, refrigerators, etc.

Pipes, fittings, and hoses: due to corrosion resistance, convenient transportation, impact resistance even at low temperatures

Sporting Goods

This polymer is used to make impact-resistant and safe sports equipment. For example, it is used to make tatami mats and gym equipment.

Conditions of ABS polymer forming processes

ABS polymer has good processability and therefore it can be processed with most methods of forming polymers. Here are the most important acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene shaping methods:

ABS polymer injection conditions:

Drying is not always required if the injection device includes a gas valve or drain valve. In cases where drying is required, placing Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene polymer for 4 hours at 80 ° C is sufficient. In this method for forming ABS, the following conditions must be provided:

  • Melt temperature: 210-270 degrees Celsius
  • Mold temperature: 40-70 degrees Celsius
  • Material injection pressure: 50-100 MPa
  • Injection rate: medium to high

Extrusion conditions of this polymer:

This method is also very practical for shaping ABS. In this method, the set standards must be strictly implemented to produce the best product.

  • Drying time: 3 hours
  • Temperature: 70-80 degrees Celsius
  • Extrusion temperature: 210-240 degrees Celsius
  • Spiral design: Proposed L / D ratio 25-30

A summary of the review of Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene polymer and its applications

ABS polymer is one of the most important polymers in the global industry, which consists of the polymerization of acrylonitrile and styrene. In this reaction, butadiene must be added to produce the best final product. This material has many different properties and is considered amorphous. Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene polymer has many different advantages; Cheap price, suitable chemical and physical properties, and diverse production methods.

This polymer is used in the production of home appliances, furniture, electronics, auto parts, and industrial pipes. This polymer is widely used in various industries due to its very good properties.

There are various methods for forming this polymer that we saw in this article. What do you think about Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene? Is this substance also used in the food industry? Is it safe to use it to produce various industrial parts? In the comments section, you can ask your questions from our experts and contact us to buy the best polymers.


What are the most important uses of Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene Polymer (ABS)?

This polymer is used to produce electronics, pipes, auto parts, sports equipment, and home appliances.

Why is ABS polymer suitable for the production of plastics?

This polymer has a low melting point; For this reason, during shaping, it is easily formed and transformed into various shapes.

Is the use of Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene polymer harmful to human health and the environment?

So far, the long-term effects of this substance on the human body have not been recorded. This substance does not harm the environment but can cause respiratory problems in humans.

Is polyvinyl chloride better or ABS polymer?

If we want to compare these two polymers, ABS wins this competition! Because this polymer has more strength and better ductility than PVC.