Novolac resin is one of the most durable and quality industrial polyurethane floorings. Novolac flooring, due to its inherent properties, can also be used outdoors and can perform well in halls, factories, parking lots, yards, and hospitals. These types of resins are prepared by the reaction of phenol or its derivatives with formaldehyde in the presence of a suitable catalyst. Resole and Novolac are two important types of this type of resin. The useful features of these resins are high thermal resistance and low price. These resins are used in the production of composites, the electronics industry as well as thermal shields. In the continuation of this PETROPROVIDERS article, join us to show you the applications of Iran novolac resin.

Full introduction of phenolic resin or Novolac resin

phenol formaldehyde resins

phenol formaldehyde resins

Phenolic resin, also known as phenolic resin, phenol-formaldehyde resin, and phenoplast resin, is one of the oldest and most widely used thermoset resins. Novolac epoxy resin and flooring (EPN) provide significantly higher thermal and chemical resistance properties compared to conventional epoxy flooring systems (based on bisphenol A).

Novolac epoxy is more effective due to the conversion of bisphenol A-based epoxy to Novalak epoxy primers. (In other words, the average number of active groups per molecule is higher.) This formulation also provides higher crosslinking densities, resulting in better chemical resistance and thermal properties. This resistance includes resistance to concentrated leachates, sulfuric acid (98%), sodium hydroxide (50%), and pesticides.

This highly resistant material is intended for use in the vicinity of wastewater treatment plants. We know that the corrosive nature of the chemicals used in day-to-day processes poses challenges when choosing suitable flooring.

Daily activities expose the substrate to concentrated leachate, sulfuric acid (98%), sodium hydroxide (50%), and pesticides. Even in cases where continuous spillage of concentrated chemicals occurs, the part that comes in contact with the chemicals will corrode severely over time and lose its effectiveness if not used properly or without surface coating.

Concentrated sulfuric acid is highly corrosive; This dangerous chemical can eat skin, paper, metals, and in some cases, even stones! Only Novolac epoxy provides the chemical resistance needed to prevent such damage.

Investigation of Iran Novolac resin production history

Novolac resin Structure

Novolac resin Structure

These resins were the first commercial plastics to be made from purely synthetic raw materials. Leo Hendrik Arthur Baekeland first introduced a PF resin under the Bakelite brand in 1910. As the name implies, PF resins are obtained by the multi-density reaction of formaldehyde and phenol. Phenol-formaldehyde polymers are very important in terms of consumption.

The phenol-formaldehyde polymerization reaction can be divided into at least two stages. The first step is to produce a low molecular weight polymer, which is soluble and fluid. This step is called the first step, and the formed polymer is called the first step polymer. The second step is to change the primary polymer to a brief lattice product that is insoluble but fluid. In some cases, the reaction continues until the production of a highly crosslinked polymer called the third stage polymer; It will not soften with heat.

This substance is one of the types of phenol-formaldehyde resins in which the mass ratio of formaldehyde to phenol is less than one. In most cases, these substances are produced from curzoles or methyl phenols instead of phenols. The polymerization of this type of resin is completed with the help of acid catalysts such as sulfuric acid, oxalic acid, hydrochloric acid, and in very rare cases sulfonic acid.

Phenolic units are usually joined by methylene or ether groups. The final polymer obtained is a type of thermoplastic and requires processing or hardening agents to become a thermostat. Hexamethylenetetramine is a type of hardener that binds to novolaks with crosslinked bonds.

Methylene, as well as amino-dimethylene bridges, are produced when these materials are exposed to temperatures above 90 ┬░ C. novolac has a variety of applications, including car tire adhesives, high-temperature application resins, binders for a variety of refractory bodies containing carbon bonds, photoresist carbon brakes or light resistors, as well as processing agents for epoxy resins.

Familiarity with the most important properties of Novolac resin

Novolac resin properties

Novolac resin properties

Excellent chemical resistance, impermeability, and excellent thermal resistance of this material have made it the best choice for protection against corrosive and polluting agents. In general, the most important properties of novolac resin can be the following:

  • Affordable price
  • Heat resistance
  • Water and moisture resistance
  • Crispness is one of the main disadvantages of this type of resin.
  • Ease of molding
  • Very good and accurate dimensional stability
  • Creep resistance
  • High resistance to deformation
  • Good thermal resistance
  • Good electrical resistance
  • Good chemical resistance
  • Resistance to good weather conditions
  • Low water absorption
  • Good quality in machining

Depending on the temperature at which novolac resins are stable, they are classified into different types.

All types of novolac resins maintain their stability up to a maximum of 300 to 350 degrees Celsius and are also highly resistant to the effects of chemicals and water penetration. These novolac resin compounds are yellow to dark red in color, cost-effective, and excellent in performance.

Applications of Iran Novolac resin

Novalac resin applications

Novalac resin applications

Solid Novolac epoxy resin and flooring systems are suitable for use in places that require strong resistance to strong chemicals and solvents. EPN systems are used in special solvent tanks, pump beds, pits, and other surfaces that are exposed to a lot of light; Because Novolac epoxy is not like bisphenol-A epoxy and has good resistance to sunlight. This prevents EPN resin from being degraded like Bisphenol A-based epoxy resin.

The electrical and sanitary industries, as well as waste and chemical treatment plants, power plants, and textile machinery, are all examples of places where a lot of Novolac resin flooring is used. Other uses for Novolac resin include concave foundations, dam walls, chamber walls, tanks, pits, tables, single foundations, and more.

This material is very important for use in coating industrial surfaces that are exposed to strong acids and alkalis, high-temperature chemicals, nuclear and non-nuclear contaminants. Common applications of these materials are:

  1. Production of insulation structures for high voltage
  2. water lubricated bearing
  3. Production of gears
  4. Making a decorative table brain.
  5. Making foam

Novolac resins are used to produce a wide range of industrial products due to their thermal stability, excellent mechanical and physical properties. Due to the special properties of this material, these resins are mainly used in the production of various products:

  1. Electrical circuit boards
  2. Plastic molding products such as billiard balls
  3. Making laboratory tables
  4. Production of all kinds of coatings
  5. Production of adhesives

Some fiberglass coatings are used as a mixture of phenolic resin and carbon to produce laminated laminates in industry. These resins are produced under polymerization reactions, so the choice of base materials is made according to the type of application of the final product.

In addition to these resins, important plastics and thermoplastics are also used in industries that offer excellent strength. For example, High impact polystyrene or HIPS is very important. It is also possible to produce a variety of disposable plastic products using General Purpose polystyrene.

The main differences between resol and Novolac

Resol VS Novolac

Resol VS Novolac

In the first stage, depending on the type of catalyst used, which is acidic or alkaline, two different products are obtained, called Novolac and Resol. The type and properties of the polymer produced depend directly on the type of catalyst used and the molar ratio of phenol and formaldehyde. In both cases, ortho and paramethylphenol additives are produced in the first stage.

The main difference between the first stage under acidic and alkaline conditions is that under acidic conditions, the monomeric derivatives of methylol are unstable; While in alkaline conditions, the monomeric and dimeric derivatives of methylol are stable and separable. When the catalyst used in polymerization is acidic, the resulting product is thermoplastic, but by adding materials that can crosslink the polymer, they can also become thermosets.

The initial product of the reaction of phenol with formaldehyde is available in the form of Resol and Novolac.

  • Resol is obtained from the reaction between phenol and formaldehyde in alkaline conditions where the ratio of phenol to formaldehyde is less than one (ie the excess formaldehyde).
  • Novolac is obtained from the reaction between phenol and formaldehyde in acidic conditions where the ratio of formaldehyde to phenol is less than one.

Resol-type PF resins are commonly referred to as single-stage resins. Novolac PF resins, on the other hand, are called two-stage resins. This is because a substance called Hexa is added to them in the second step. (Hexa is obtained by the reaction of formaldehyde and ammonia and is the same compound as hexamethylenetetramine.)

Resol synthesis method:

Dissolve 1 g of phenol in 2 ml of 40% aqueous formalin in a test tube. Then add approximately 2 ml of 2 M diluted aqueous ammonia solution to this mixture. Then put a few grains of boiling stone in the test tube. (This is very important because the reaction is very hot and if you do not add boiling stone, the mixture will heat up a lot.)

Connect the tube to a distillation base. Then heat gently with a benzene lamp until the mixture turns milky white, then stop heating. In this case, the mixture should be in two separate layers, most of which contain water. Remove the top layer using a dropper or pipette.

The underlying liquid is the resin, which contains small amounts of water. By heating this viscous liquid inside the test tube or on the watch glass, preferably aluminum foil, the resin turns yellow.

Novolac synthesis method

Mix 2 g of phenol with 0.4 ml of 40% aqueous formalin solution and 2 ml of 2 M sulfuric acid in a test tube. After dropping the boiling stone, heat it, after a while two phases are formed; By separating the upper aqueous phase, the lower viscous layer is Novolac!

Safety tips for Novolac resin

Resin Safety

Resin Safety

The composition of Iran Novolac resin consists mainly of the raw materials of phenolic formaldehyde resin, phenolic compounds, and in some cases benzyl alcohols. Due to the safety and chemical information of this polymer compound, it is necessary to keep them in closed containers to prevent possible vapors from escaping from the containers.

When working with this combination, be sure to use glasses, masks, and special work clothes so that the stimulating vapors of Novolac resin do not enter your respiratory system and eyes.

Be sure to store containers for storing Novolac resins in cool, dry warehouses equipped with strong air conditioning systems. The best temperature for storage and resol storage tanks is 35 degrees Fahrenheit. At this temperature, the maximum durability of the polymer composition is maintained.

It is as toxic as phthalic anhydride; So be careful not to be exposed to the toxic fumes of this substance. In addition, it is interesting to know that the raw material of dioctyl phthalate or DOP is phthalic acid. This substance is highly toxic and is harmful to human health.

Novolac resin market worldwide

Phenolic resin trades

Phenolic resin trades

The sale and purchase of manufactured Novolac resin in the global market as one of the most widely used polymeric materials have attracted the attention of consumer markets. In this regard, American and European countries are actively involved in the production, export, and import of this polymer compound. The purchase and sale of this resin are done with a special code.

 Top exporters of Novolac resin

  1. The United States tops the list with $ 269 million.
  2. Japan is behind the United States with $ 244 million.
  3. Germany ranks third with $ 207 million.
  4. China is fourth with $ 165 million.
  5. Belgium and Luxembourg are the fifth largest exporters of this resin with $ 124 million.

Top importers of Novolac resin

  1. China tops the list with $ 286 million.
  2. Germany is in second place with $ 147 million.
  3. The United States is third with $ 119 million.
  4. Canada is the fourth-largest importer of this resin with $ 78.5 million.
  5. South Korea is fifth on the list with $ 74.3 million.

A summary of the Novolac resin review, its applications, and features

Phenolic resin, also known as phenolic resin, phenol-formaldehyde resin, and phenoplast resin, is one of the oldest and most widely used thermoset resins. These types of resins are prepared by the reaction of phenol or its derivatives with formaldehyde (formaldehyde) in the presence of a suitable catalyst.

Resole and Novolac are two important types of this type of resin. The useful features of these resins are high thermal resistance and low price. These resins are used in the production of composites, the electronics industry as well as thermal shields.

Phenol formaldehyde resin, also known as Novolac resin, is a type of composite polymer that results from the reaction between phenol or phenols substituted with formaldehyde. These materials were used as the main component in the production of bakelite and are also the first type of commercial composite resins available. Applications of Novolac resin include billiard balls, laboratory desks, coatings, and adhesives.

In the past, these materials had many applications in the production of circuit boards, but today they have been widely replaced by epoxy resins as well as fiberglass coatings. One such example is fire-resistant boards, known as FR_4. Novolac resin can be produced in two different ways. In the first method, phenol and formaldehyde react directly to form a thermosetting lattice polymer. In other cases, formaldehyde is restricted to produce a type of prepolymer called Novolac. This material can be molded as well as processed with more formaldehyde and heat. Different production methods, as well as different additives, are used to produce different types of Novolac resins to achieve different goals.

What do you think about novolac resin and its applications? Do the properties of this material make it superior to other polymeric materials? Can the use of this substance in the industry increase the efficiency of production? Feel free to leave your comments in the comments section with us.


What is Novolac Resin?

It is a type of resin that is an alternative to natural resins and is produced by the reaction of phenol and aldehydes.

What is Novolac resin used for?

This resin is used to produce rubber, carbon materials, durable materials, and thermal insulation.

How is Novolac resin produced?

This resin is produced using a combination of excess phenol and an acid or salt as a catalyst.

How is Novolac epoxy produced?

Novolac epoxy is converted to a dense raw material using an epichlorohydrin reaction. It is then converted to the final product by dehydrochlorination.

Is the use of Novolac resin harmful to human health?

Yes! Like phthalic anhydride, it produces toxic fumes that damage the skin and the respiratory system.

Is Novolac resin waterproof and heat resistant?

Yes! This resin is resistant to water and heat and is used to produce insulation.

What dissolves phenolic resin?

You can use acetone or ethanol to dissolve phenolic resin or novolac resin.

How to store phenolic resins?

These resins are harmful to human health. So it is better to keep and carry them in insulated containers.

Is Phenolic Resin or Novolac a type of polystyrene?

A combination of polyester and epoxy resin can be used to produce VE resins.

What is a novolac resin monomer?

Phenol formaldehyde resin becomes the final resin (novolac) after reactions.