A pigment, as its name implies, is a type of pigment that dyes other materials, from fabrics to plastics! Types of pigments are insoluble particles and are not used as a solution, but as fine solid particles milled with a liquid. Generally, pigments are used in oil and water-based paints, printing inks, and plastics. Pigments provide color, opacity, gloss control, rheological control, and special functions such as corrosion inhibition or magnetic moment. In the continuation of this PETROPROVIDERS article, join us to show you the types of pigments.

Full introduction of types of pigments and their structure

introduction of types of pigments

introduction of types of pigments

Color pigments work by absorbing specific wavelengths of visible light and transmitting or scattering other wavelengths. They also reduce the cost of coverage by acting as a volume filler. Pigments are used as fine particles in the size of 0.01 to 100 micrometers.

Pigments are also used to dye a variety of polymeric materials. For example, these materials are used to paint GPPS grade polystyrene. In addition, pigments are used to paint the HIPS-grade polystyrene.

Pigments are divided into two general categories of organic pigments and inorganic pigments based on their chemical properties, formulation, and production method. In the following, we will fully explain each of these pigments:

Organic Pigment

organic pigments

organic pigments

Organic pigments are those pigments that are obtained from natural materials with color properties. These types of pigments exist naturally and have been used for centuries. They are quite simple in terms of chemical structure. In the chemical structure of organic pigments, there are carbon chains and rings, but some of them have an organic metal structure.

Organic pigment manufacturers produce them through a simple process involving washing, drying, powdering, and blending. Organic pigments are insoluble organic compounds with high color resistance, and the term insolubility means that they have very little solubility in water, organic solvents, and various types of environments. Organic pigments are smaller in size than inorganic pigments.

Organic pigments are divided into three main groups: Azo Pigments, Polycyclic Pigments, and Anthraquinone Pigments, each of which has a different color spectrum as well as different properties:

  • Azo pigments contain a group of nitrogen, most of which are red, orange, and yellow organic pigments.
  • Polycyclic pigments include annealed heterocyclic or aromatic moieties. Commercial pigments can consist of small systems containing five annealing rings such as dictopirlo-pyrrole derivatives, to large systems consisting of eight or nine annealing rings such as flavantrol, pyrantron, isoviolantron, or carbazole-dioxazines.

In the anthraquinone pigment, each of the groups of organic pigments has anthraquinone-based molecular structures. Anthraquinone acid dyes contain sulfonic acid groups that dissolve in water and are significant for wool and silk. Other examples of anthraquinone pigments include anthropyrimidine yellow and anthraquinone red.

Common properties of organic pigments include the following:

Color quality:

While most organic pigments are considered transparent, their tonnage is unparalleled. Organic pigments are characterized by bright colors. Despite their transparency, they often produce high color strength.

Diverse optical stability:

There are many different types of pigments, but most tend to retain poor color when exposed to light. While some can withstand light and heat well, many fade over time.

High price:

The production of organic pigments is more expensive, especially synthetic organic pigments. Synthetic pigments require a large chemical process to produce and increase volumetric costs.

Organic pigments are mainly used in ink (50%), paint (25%), plastic (12%) and rubber (10%), and other 3%. Types of pigments can provide many excellent functions such as good color, durability, mobility, and viscosity of inks. They act as coloring agents for plastics and synthetic fibers, giving them a beautiful color.

In the rubber industry, it can be used as a filler and reinforcement. In general, with different application conditions, the performance of organic pigments is also different. But they provide the general need for bright colors, strong staining power, excellent dispersion, less oil absorption, and strong concealing power.

Inorganic pigment

inorganic pigments

inorganic pigments

As you can guess from its name, these types of pigments are exactly the opposite of organic pigments. These pigments are also known as “synthetic pigments”. They are formulated in the laboratory and provide a wide range of controls for mineral pigment manufacturers. Mineral pigments are produced by relatively simple chemical processes such as oxidation.

Mineral pigments are not based on carbon chains and rings but contain minerals, usually metals and metal salts, such as zinc ions, titanium, nickel, cobalt, manganese, chromium, and others. Due to the compounds, mineral pigments are usually more opaque than insoluble pigments. In general, mineral pigments are commonly used in industry because of their optical stability and low cost.

Mineral pigments come in a wide range of colors, the purest being white (titanium) and the blackest being carbon black.

White pigments are added to colors to reduce their cost or improve their properties. Black pigments are made primarily of carbon particles. For example, carbon black is used to give black color to printing inks. Iron oxide soil pigments produce steam (yellow-brown), Sina (orange-brown), and amber (brown).

Certain combinations of chromium are used to make yellow, orange, and green, while different combinations of cadmium produce bright yellow, orange, and bright red.

The most important properties of mineral pigment can be mentioned as follows:

Excellent fade resistance:

One of the advantages of mineral pigments is their excellent resistance to fading when exposed to light. They also tend to be more resistant to fading when exposed to open air and heat.


It is cheaper to produce mineral pigments, especially in large quantities required for industrial applications. Most of this is due to the relatively simple chemical reactions required to produce mineral pigments.

Poor tonnage:

While mineral pigments tend to retain their color well, the color they produce on their own often has a poor tonnage. Improving tonnage and brightness is possible when mixing mineral pigments with organic pigments or dyes.


Mineral pigments are more harmful to the environment due to the presence of lead salts in their compounds. Some are even quite toxic, such as lead-based pigment.

Mineral pigments are used in various industries such as paint, plastics, synthetic fibers, inks, construction, plastics, and coatings.

A summary of the study of types of pigments and their applications

In this PETROPROVIDERS article, we saw types of pigments. In general, pigments are divided into two main types; Organic pigments and synthetic pigments. It is interesting to know that mineral pigments are used in various industries such as paints, plastics, synthetic fibers, inks, buildings, plastics, and coatings. In addition, organic pigments are used to dye a variety of polymers such as polystyrene.

Pigments are the most important part of industrial dyeing, which determines 50% of its price. Pigments are white, black, and fluorescent solid particles that change the appearance of objects due to their ability to absorb or emit light.

The first inks were made from the juice of vegetables and fruits. Later, the secretions of animals such as fish, crabs, and octopuses, the blood of certain snails, and the sap of trees were also used as ink.

What do you think about types of pigments? Are the use of these substances harmful to human health? Is the use of these pigments for dyeing all kinds of materials in applied industries? In the comments section, you can ask your questions from our experts.

In addition, we at PETROPROVDIERS offer a variety of polymers and provide a variety of advice to increase your knowledge of polymeric materials. In our articles, you can see reviews of popular chemicals such as phthalic anhydride and its types and dioctyl phthalate and its applications. If this article was helpful to you, share it with your friends.

What is a pigment?

Pigment is a color that exists in powder form. It is insoluble in water and is used to paint a variety of plastics and polymers.

Pigment is a color that exists in powder form. It is insoluble in water and is used to paint a variety of plastics and polymers.

Pigments are one of the most important materials in the paint industry. This substance is offered in two types, organic and chemical.

Is the use of pigments harmful to human health?

Yes! If you use synthetic pigments, you should be safe from its damage! Because this substance may harm your health and that of your children.

What is the most important use of pigments?

This material is used to paint a variety of materials in various industries.